Policy Exchange on CCS
Policy Exchange has published a report arguing that carbon capture and storage (CCS) is essential to meeting our emission reduction targets. The report explores various ways that the government could support CCS.
If there is a strategic case for CCS the mechanism that I believe to make most sense is:
5. Government underwrites the EU-ETS minimum base price.
This involves a risk for Government, to provide baseline funds of €30 to 60/ton CO2 if the EU-ETS market remains low. It is not clear how the Government recoups its money, except by waiting to sell EU-A at a high price some years later, or by cross-subsidy from the new Phase 3 Auction revenue.
I would argue that the base price be set by auction. The CCS developer that offers the lowest base price would be given by Ofgem the difference between that price and the EUA price for each tonne of CO2 it avoids. This approach is economically similar to the feed-in tariff that Policy Exchange favours but is more likely to determine an appropriate subsidy. Unlike Policy Exchange’s other preferred option – allocating one or two free EUAs to plants for each tonne of CO2 they capture – it maintains the environmental integrity of the EU ETS (see this post for more on multiple EUA allocation).
The government would risk depressing the EUA price by subsidising CCS and thereby inflating the subsidy it would pay for further CCS generation – but this cost would also be borne in the feed-in tariff model. The reduction in the EUA price would filter through to the wholesale energy market, making the feed-in tariff represent a larger subsidy.
The real question is whether there is a strategic case for CCS. New CCS will not create net emission reductions in the short term (unless CCS remains unrecognised in Phase 3 of the EU ETS), so it should only be supported if it is considered integral to decarbonisation in the long term. As Policy Exchange points out, it looks like we will be dependent on coal for decades to come. Perhaps our resources should be concentrated on reducing our dependence.